Rovers' fixture against the Rams is one of six opening-day games chosen to mark the Football League's 125th anniversary.
The other Championship fixture is Burnley v Bolton, while Preston v Wolves and Sheffield United v Notts County have been hand-picked in League One and Hartlepool v Rochdale and Newport v Accrington in League Two.
Blackburn, Derby, Wolves, Preston and Notts County are among the 12 founder members of the Football League.
The fixture between Hartlepool and Rochdale is the most played between any two clubs currently in the Football League, with the next meeting their 137th encounter.
In the final anniversary match, Accrington travel to the Football League's newest ground and member club - Rodney Parade, the home of the re-formed Newport County.
Derby and Blackburn drew 1-1 in this fixture last season while the return game at Ewood Park saw Rovers record a 2-0 victory.