The Dutch announced that the 33-year-old Bayern winger, who has played 96 times for his country, was calling time on his Holland career shortly after Tuesday's home match against Sweden.
Holland won the World Cup qualifier 2-0 with Robben scoring twice, but it was not enough for them to secure a place in the play-offs for the finals in Russia next summer as they finished third in Group A.
"I wanted to show one more time all the things that I can do," Robben said after the game.
Robben scored 37 times in 96 appearances for the Netherlands and helped them reach the 2010 World Cup final where they lost 1-0 to Spain after extra-time.
The Dutch also progressed to the last four at the 2014 finals before losing to Argentina on penalties.
"Fourteen years, it's beautiful, magnificent even," said Robben, who made his international debut against Portugal in April 2003. "I will always remember the 2010 World Cup and 2014. Those are my best memories. During those two competitions we formed a real team."