Celtic were hammered at the Nou Camp in the earlier group game but now have a chance to make up for that 7-0 reverse when the Catalan giants make the trip to Glasgow on Wednesday evening.
Rodgers says his side have improved since the heavy defeat and proved it when they held Manchester City 3-3 in their next group game in the Champions League.
The former Liverpool and Swansea boss knows his side is facing one of the best teams in Europe but he's backed his players to show they can live with Barca this time.
"We're playing them [Barcelona] again at home but it doesn't mean the game is going to be any easier," Rodgers said at a press conference on Tuesday.
"Certainly our mentality will be different because the players showed that, from that Barcelona game, going into the next game against Manchester City, they had changed.
"[It will be] a tough game, of course - they're a top class, world-class team with arguably the best front three that has ever played for Barcelona. But I would hope that it would be a different performance from ourselves."
Following the City draw, Celtic drew 1-1 at German side Borussia Monchengladbach and remain bottom of Group C with just two points from four games and they will need to realistically beat Barca on Wednesday to stand any chance of making it out of the group.
Punters may be tempted to use a free bet to back the Scottish champions to secure a shock victory, considering what is at stake.