The 18-year-old has agreed a four-and-a-half-year deal at the Amsterdam ArenA but he will now return to Fortuna for the remainder of the season.
That deal will officially go through on January 1 and Schuurs has been rewarded for his performances in the second tier of Dutch football.
He was handed the captaincy at the start of the season at just 17 and his displays caught the eye of Liverpool.
However, Schuurs has decided to remain in the Netherlands and he cannot wait to get started next year.
"It is a dream to be able to play at a top club like Ajax," he said in a statement on Fortuna's official website.
"There were several clubs interested and I also spoke with other clubs, but my feeling at Ajax was immediately very good. I think that's important."