Hamilton, who was crowned world champion for a fourth time in Mexico last time out, topped both P1 and P2 on Friday and was expected to start Sunday's race at the front of the pack.
But the 32-year-old will have to come from the back of the grid to win the race after he crashed into the barriers on the first fast lap in Q1.
Hamilton told Sky Sports: "I'm OK. It happened really quickly. It is what it is. Of course it's unfortunate. I tend to just look at it as challenges are what makes life interesting and overcoming them makes life meaningful.
"I just need to take whatever bubble of negativity comes from that experience and move forwards, and try and grow from it. It's very unusual from me but it shows we are all human and things happen.
"I will try to have as much fun as possible tomorrow. Years ago I came from quite far behind and had a great race."
Hamilton's exit in Q1 put all the pressure on Bottas to clinch pole but the Finn was able to produce the goods as he pipped Ferrari's Sebastian Vettel in the dying seconds, recording a quickest time of 1:08.322
The 28-year-old, who still has a chance to finish second in the World Championship, was delighted with his display and is eager to see what unfolds in Sunday's Grand Prix.
"I feel good. Still a bit shaky, but it's a good feeling," Bottas told Sky Sports. "It was so close with Sebastian all through the qualifying but I got a good lap at the end.
"Lewis out in the beginning was a shame for us but I'm glad I could stand up for us and the team. It's really good to start on pole here. We have a good car and it will still be close with Ferrari and I'm looking forward to tomorrow."
Raikkonen will start third for the Scuderia, Red Bull's Max Verstappen is fourth while Force India's Sergio Perez, who was sixth fastest, will begin in fifth as Daniel Ricciardo's grid penalty will be applied.