The Australian's Red Bull required a new MGU-H - an essential component of a Formula 1 turbo hybrid power unit, designed to spin the turbocharger at lower revs.
It was fitted prior to Friday practice at Interlagos, triggering his penalty for race day.
Toro Rosso drivers Brendon Hartley and Pierre Gasly suffered the same fate and will also suffer ten-place grid penalties on Sunday.
And all three drivers could be hit again after further tweaks to their power unit, with Hartley's Toro Rosso the most likely after suffering a power unit failure during FP1 after just two laps.
Ricciardo's Red Bull team-mate Max Verstappen was trouble free during morning practice, however.
The Dutchman was fourth fastest, just slower than third-placed Kimi Raikkonen as Mercedes dominated both sessions with Lewis Hamilton edging out Valtteri Bottas on each occasion.