Charlie Hoffman looked to be in the box seat heading into the final round, with Jordan Spieth and Justin Rose his closest challengers, but Fowler came from nowhere thanks to an 11-under par round to take the win.
Fowler finished on 18 under with Hoffman four shots further behind, while Tiger Woods bounced back with a 68 to finish the tournament on eight under.
"I needed to get off to a quick start today to at least show Charley I was there," Fowler said after the win. "We took care of that and kept it rolling from there."
Woods is also back on track after making a successful return from injury and has now set his sights on preparing for the majors in 2018.
"I knew I was going to be able to play all four rounds, that wasn't going to be an issue," said Woods.
"The issue was how my scoring was going to be, how was my feel? How am I going to get used to the adrenaline in my system, because it's the first time in a while - that took a little bit of time."
The 2018 Masters, the first of golf's four major championships, starts on April 5.
"I need to play enough but not play too much and I don't know the best way to go about it yet but we will figure it out," he said.