The Citizens headed into the game with questions to answer following their Champions League exit at the hands of Monaco on Wednesday but showed no signs of a hangover against the Reds, as they regularly attacked with pace and verve.
However, they struggled to make major inroads and went behind through a James Milner penalty after Gael Clichy had fouled Roberto Firmino.
Sergio Aguero grabbed an equaliser for the Citizens but despite plenty of pressure, they failed to convert any of their chances and had to settle for a point which maintains their position in third.
Following the disappointment of their European elimination, Guardiola admitted he was delighted with the way his players responded, although he admitted they need to become more clinical.
He told Sky Sports: "You cannot imagine. It is one of happiest days of my career as a manager. I am so proud. After the Champions League, the last few days at training people were so, so, sad, people don't talk too much.
"We arrive here against Liverpool who have no Europe all season and one week to prepare. The spirit, how we played, it is one of my happiest days as a manager.
"We created more than them. Our problem is we don't score when they are easy goals."