The 19-year-old was not selected in the original 24-man party but was called up as a replacement for the injured Wigan star Sean O'Loughlin, who has a cracked bone in his thumb.
But Briscoe will start on the wing against the French at the Keepmoat Stadium on Friday, while Huddersfield's Scott Moore has been selected at hooker for the tournament opener.
Having been left out of England's final two matches at the World Cup, Leeds skipper Kevin Sinfield is recalled at loose forward while his Rhinos team-mate Danny McGuire will partner Salford's Richie Myler at half-back.
Despite scoring a hat-trick in the 48-12 friendly win over Wales last weekend, Wigan stand-off Sam Tomkins has been left out of the 17-man matchday squad.
England team: Shaun Briscoe (Hull KR), Tom Briscoe (Hull), Lee Smith (Leeds), Michael Shenton (Castleford), Ryan Hall (Leeds), Danny McGuire (Leeds), Richie Myler (Salford), Adrian Morley (Warrington), Scott Moore (Huddersfield), Jamie Peacock (Leeds, capt), Gareth Ellis (Wests Tigers), Sam Burgess (Bradford), Kevin Sinfield (Leeds).
Replacements: Kyle Eastmond (St Helens), James Roby (St Helens), James Graham (St Helens), Ben Westwood (Warrington).