The former England boss quit his role as head coach of Scotland off the back of a disappointing autumn series, which saw the side suffer a shock defeat to Tonga following losses to New Zealand and South Africa.
The 48-year-old has now been confirmed as the new director of rugby at the Memorial Ground, signing a four-and-a-half-year contract that begins on March 1.
Robinson will work alongside current head coach Liam Middleton and believes he can help secure a top-flight return for Bristol, currently fourth in the table.
Robinson told BBC Radio Bristol: "I like the ambition of the club. Their values align to mine and I wanted to come to a place where I was going to enjoy my work.
"Coming here and being able to work alongside Liam, I feel like I can really make a difference to the club. We want to develop Bristol as a team - both on and off the field."